Kikuyu Wedding Traditions

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 03-01-2016

By Rafi Michael

Weddings are largely a social affair with societal standing and financial status playing a big role in the type of wedding to be held. Wedding photos also play a major role. However, perhaps the most influencing factor that determines a wedding’s components is culture. The Kikuyu culture is a well-known cultural group that is predominantly found in the central highlands of Kenya. Many Kenyan citizens are actually of Kikuyu descent as it is the largest tribe in Kenya. The Kikuyu language is used everywhere by Kikuyu immigrants as far away as Toronto. Despite long-held wedding traditions, modern western influences have slowly begun to be incorporated into Kikuyu weddings an example being wedding photos.

Customarily, marriage proceedings often begin with the man proposing to the woman. Upon her acceptance the man then calls for a meeting with his clan elders who largely consist of extended elderly family members. A delegation carrying small gifts such as wheat and rice is then sent to the woman’s home to meet with her clan elders. Deliberations on bride price actually begin on a later date and these are strictly conducted by the older men only. Traditionally, no wedding photos are taken at this time. Upon completion of these negotiations, a wedding date is set, with the elders having provided an acceptable percentage of the full dowry. The rest of the dowry is expected later. No request is made for it, but the young man is expected to remember to finish his payment and failure to do so spells dishonor for that family.

The actual wedding ceremony often involves the entire community. Women organize food matters while the men organize financial matters. The man is considered responsible for his bride’s dress and the bride is free to choose her bride’s maids. These matters are often deliberated upon in pre-wedding parties. In strictly traditional Kikuyu weddings, there is hardly ever the use of official rings and neither is there an official engagement ceremony as is characteristic of western weddings for instance. in Toronto. Furthermore, wedding photos, which feature largely in these events, were in earlier times not taken.

YouTube Preview Image

On the eve of the wedding, the young man and his relations visit his future in laws. Usually this is done to help with wedding arrangements. However, the convoy is not immediately let into the girls homestead. Rather the bride’s gate is locked and song and dance begins as a cover for negotiations. Various goods may be asked of the groom and he willingly obliges to the demands after which he is let into the compound.

The wedding day begins with a convoy from the grooms family that heads to the girls home to collect her. The singing and dancing can be heard all over the village. Most Kikuyu’s being Christians head to a church for the ceremony and a consequent reception. Kikuyu weddings are characterized by many guests and are rarely a private affair as is often witnessed in Toronto. Wedding photos are taken at this time as food is served and wedding gifts offered. Speeches on how to live as husband and wife are given, then singing, and dancing goes on late into the night. Unlike weddings in Toronto, Kikuyu couples do not go for a honeymoon, but rather just proceed to their new home, marking the start of their new life together.

About the Author: Wedding Toronto Wedding Photography & Video Productions Toronto we specialize in individually tailored Wedding Photography, Videos and DVD’s, offering an experienced, highly professional and affordable service. for more info vist:


Permanent Link:

South African prosecutors charge ANC leader Jacob Zuma with corruption

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 03-01-2016

Saturday, December 29, 2007 


Corruption-related charges have been brought against Jacob Zuma, the newly-elected leader of the African National Congress (ANC), according to his lawyer. A trial is scheduled to begin on August 14, 2008.

The charges stem from an arms deal with a French company, which is alleged to have involved bribes and fraud. Zuma’s financial adviser at the time, Schabir Shaik, was convicted in 2005 of attempting to solicit a bribe of US$72,500 per year from the arms company on Zuma’s behalf and was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Zuma was fired as deputy president in 2005 by South African President Thabo Mbeki due to the scandal.

Two-term ANC leader Mbeki recently lost an ANC leadership contest to Jacob Zuma, who garnered about 60 percent of delegate votes in his win.

Zuma had been charged with corruption in 2005, but the case was dismissed on procedural grounds. Michael Hulley, Zuma’s defence lawyer, indicated that they will strongly contest the new charges in court. Hulley also suggested that the South African government’s National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) and its anti-organised crime division known as The Scorpions, have carried out a smear campaign against Zuma.

“These charges will be vigorously defended, in the context of the belief that the Scorpions (NPA) have acted wrongly and with improper motive calculated to discredit Mr. Zuma and ensure that he play no leadership role in the political future of our country,” said Michael Hulley in a statement.

Given that the ANC has been the governing party in South Africa since the end of apartheid in 1994, it is likely that Jacob Zuma could become the next president after general elections in 2009. Zuma has said, however, that he would resign if he was found guilty by the courts.

Commonwealth Bank of Australia CEO apologies for financial planning scandal

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 03-01-2016

Thursday, July 3, 2014 

Ian Narev, the CEO of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, this morning “unreservedly” apologised to clients who lost money in a scandal involving the bank’s financial planning services arm.

Last week, a Senate enquiry found financial advisers from the Commonwealth Bank had made high-risk investments of clients’ money without the clients’ permission, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars lost. The Senate enquiry called for a Royal Commission into the bank, and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC).

Mr Narev stated the bank’s performance in providing financial advice was “unacceptable”, and the bank was launching a scheme to compensate clients who lost money due to the planners’ actions.

In a statement Mr Narev said, “Poor advice provided by some of our advisers between 2003 and 2012 caused financial loss and distress and I am truly sorry for that. […] There have been changes in management, structure and culture. We have also invested in new systems, implemented new processes, enhanced adviser supervision and improved training.”

An investigation by Fairfax Media instigated the Senate inquiry into the Commonwealth Bank’s financial planning division and ASIC.

Whistleblower Jeff Morris, who reported the misconduct of the bank to ASIC six years ago, said in an article for The Sydney Morning Herald that neither the bank nor ASIC should be in control of the compensation program.

Famous Cigar Smokers That Were Also Famous Actors

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 16-07-2015

Famous Cigar Smokers That Were Also Famous Actors


George Roy

A new device known as E cigs have just recently been incorporated on the market to offer smokers a less dangerous alternative to smoking and perhaps even help people quit smoking completely. These devices can be referred to as different terms such as; vapor cigarettes and also smokeless cigarettes. Depending on which size e cig you would prefer, you could either pick one of these devices up either in a big size or small.

E cigarettes look a lot like cigarettes and they also have a led light at the top which makes the fake smoke appear a lot more like a real cigarette. One of these smokeless cigarettes is very simple to use and acts pretty much like a typical cigarette without all of the toxins getting into your system. This of course, is fantastic as you will be protecting other people around you and in addition your health.

YouTube Preview Image

These electronic cigarettes actually have a led light at the end which may look similar to a burning cigarette but in fact they are just there for effect. The e cigs also give you a much faster nicotine hit than any patches or nicotine gum, it works by a small battery which activates an atomizer and turn the liquid nicotine into vapor. By using this electronic cigarette you will be able to get the same hit as you would from a regular cigarette without needing to harm your body.

These e cigs are also legal and actually contain zero bad toxins, this is of course beneficial as it enables you to use this inhaling device in pretty much any place you like. The cartridges come in a multitude of flavors and nicotine strengths, the flavors can even include banana, rum, strawberry and many more. The different strengths will also help you give up smoking as you can start on the same amount of nicotine as your usual cigarettes, then drop the nicotine intake as you go along, eventually it will be nil and you will be classed a none smoker! These e cigs also have the exact same sensation as a normal cigarette, this is why they are so sought after by the many smokers out there.

Whether you would like to cut down on the amount you smoke or perhaps just find an alternate way to smoke without harming your health then e cigs could be perfect for you. If you want to make sure you are making the right choice then you need to look online to find out more information. It is far better to do some research before you invest in one of these devices, this is because there is a variety of these products to choose from.

Celebs also use e cigs some of these people include Jimmy White, one of UK\\’s biggest snooker players, he has been seen at matches puffing away at a vapor cigarette, he uses them as smoking is banned in public places within the UK. Alan Tichmarsh used one on his 400th show to celebrate the anniversary he also handed them out to guests for free! Paris Hilton is also an owner of the E cigs and has been papped with one in her hands.

As a enthusiast connected with antique collectible cigars and also associated collectibles, the author delights in writing talking about

famous cigar smokers

. Within this piece of content you\\’ll learn about some of the history of a few of the many famous cigar smokers and the brands that they enjoyed.

Article Source:

Tour de France: Alexandre Vinokourov wins stage 15

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 16-07-2015

Monday, July 23, 2007 

Alexandre Vinokourov of Kazakhstan has won stage 15 of the 2007 Tour de France in a time of 5h 34′ 28″.

Michael Rasmussen of Denmark kept his overall lead by 2′ 23′ over Alberto Contador of Spain. The two extend their lead on Cadel Evans of Australia by 1′ 37″, and more on the rest of the contenders.

Today’s 196 km stage is one of the major stages of the Tour, with no fewer than five major mountain passes – including the Col de Port, the Col de Portet d’Aspet (5.7 km climb at 6.9%), the Col de Menté (7.0 km climb at 8.1%), the Port de Balès (19.5 km at 6.2%), (the first time this climb has featured in the Tour), and finally the Col de Peyresourde (9.7 km climb at 7.8%) with a downhill finish in Loudenvielle.

Tomorrow is a rest day for the Tour.

Caribou plays the Bowery Ballroom

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 16-07-2015

Tuesday, November 6, 2007 

Daniel Snaith, better known as Caribou, formerly known as Manitoba until a lawsuit by musician Richard “Handsome Dick” Manitoba, recently played New York City’s Bowery Ballroom. Below is Wikinews reporter David Shankbone’s conversation with the electronica pioneer.

David Shankbone: How is the tour going?

DS: How do European and American audiences compare to each other?

DS: But they are more electronic in Europe than they are here, right?

DS: You reach the same fans in each place?

DS: Do you play to larger audiences over there or here?

DS: Do you have a favorite venue?

DS: What would be a dream venue to play?

DS: Is there a continent you haven’t played where you would like to?

DS: Rio or São Paulo?

DS: How has the Iraq War affected you as an artist?

DS: Has it affected you as a person?

DS: Do you find you’re more inspired by manmade things or things in nature?

DS: What sort of ideas inspire you?

DS: Would you consider your music to be mathematical?

DS: Do you have a favorite mathematician or unsolved mathematical problem?

DS: What’s a trait you deplore in other people?

DS: What’s a trait you deplore in yourself?

DS: You think that might be a negative?

DS: That’s a challenge for any human of whether or not to pursue something you think is a greater good or indulge yourself. How do you wrestle with that question?

DS: Well, we need music in this world and if people are responding to it, you’re giving something to them.

DS: Maybe. [Laughs] Hillary or Barack?

DS: What do you think of Gordon Brown?

DS: What would be a bigger turn-off for you in bed, someone who was overly flatulent, or someone who spoke in a baby voice?

DS: Do you have a favorite curse word?

DS: Favorite euphemism for breasts?

DS: If you had to choose between the destruction of the entire continent of Africa or the entire continent of Asia, which would you choose?

DS: What are traits you respect in a woman?

DS: It doesn’t differ in men?

DS: What’s your most treasured possession?

DS: Any favorite films?

DS: What difficult question in an interview do you anticipate but are never asked?

DS: What question are you tired of answering?

DS: In the last year, where have you drawn most of your influence, and you can’t have been listening to them beyond a year ago.

Motion Picture Association of America film rating system

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 16-07-2015

The Motion Picture Association of America’s (MPAA) film-rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film’s suitability for certain audiences, based on its content. The MPAA rating system is a voluntary scheme that is not enforced by law; films can be exhibited without a rating, though many theaters refuse to exhibit non-rated or NC-17 rated films. Non-members of MPAA may also submit films for rating.[1] Other media (such as television programs and video games) may be rated by other entities. The MPAA rating system is one of various motion picture rating systems that are used to help parents decide what films are appropriate for their children.

The MPAA’s rating system is administered by the Classification & Ratings Administration (CARA), an independent agency.

Since the late 1990s, the MPAA film ratings have been as follows:[2]

If a film has not been submitted for a rating or is an uncut version of a film that was submitted, the labels Not Rated (NR) or Unrated (UR) are often used. Uncut/extended versions of films that are labeled “Unrated” also contain warnings saying that the uncut version of the film contains content that differs from the theatrical release and may not be suitable for minors.

If a film has not yet been assigned a final rating, the label This Film Is Not Yet Rated is used in trailers and television commercials.

The MPAA also rates film trailers, print advertising, posters, and other media used to promote a film. Green, yellow, or red title cards displayed before the start of a trailer indicate the trailer’s rating.

In 1989 Tennessee enacted a law whereby patrons of an R-rated motion picture were not admitted unless they were at least 18 years old or accompanied by a parent or adult guardian.[5]

Jack Valenti, who had become president of the Motion Picture Association of America in May 1966, deemed the Motion Picture Production Code – in place since 1930 and rigorously enforced since 1934 – as out of date and bearing “the odious smell of censorship”. Filmmakers were pushing at the boundaries of the Code, and Valenti cited examples such as Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, which contained the expressions “screw” and “hump the hostess”; and Blow-Up, which was denied Code approval due to nudity, resulting in the MPAA member studio releasing it through a subsidiary. He revised the Code to include the “SMA” (Suggested for Mature Audiences) advisory as a stopgap measure. To accommodate “the irresistible force of creators determined to make ‘their films'”, and to avoid “the possible intrusion of government into the movie arena”, he developed a set of advisory ratings which could be applied after a film was completed. On November 1, 1968, the voluntary MPAA film rating system took effect, with three organizations serving as its monitoring and guiding groups: the MPAA, the National Association of Theater Owners (NATO), and the International Film Importers & Distributors of America (IFIDA).[6]

The ratings used from 1968 to 1970 were:[7]

This content classification system originally was to have three ratings, with the intention of allowing parents to take their children to any film they chose. However, the National Association of Theater Owners urged the creation of an adults-only category, fearful of possible legal problems in local jurisdictions. The “X” rating was not an MPAA trademark and would not receive the MPAA seal; any producer not submitting a film for MPAA rating could self-apply the “X” rating (or any other symbol or description that was not an MPAA trademark).[6]

With the introduction of the MPAA’s rating system, the U.S. was a latecomer as far as film classification was concerned. Countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom had begun this practice earlier in the 20th century.[8]

In 1970 the ages for “R” and “X” were raised from 16 to 17. Also, due to confusion over whether “M” rated film were suitable for children, “M” was renamed to “GP” (parental guidance suggested), and in 1971 the MPAA added the content advisory “Some material not generally suitable for pre-teenagers”. In 1972 “GP” was revised to “PG”.[9][10]

The ratings used from 1970 to 1972 were:

The ratings used from 1972 to 1984 were:

In the early 1980s, there were complaints about violence and gore in films such as Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Gremlins, both of which received PG ratings.[11] Steven Spielberg, the director of Temple of Doom and executive producer of Gremlins, suggested a new intermediate rating between “PG” and “R”.[12] The “PG-13” rating was introduced in July 1984, with the advisory “Parents Are Strongly Cautioned to Give Special Guidance for Attendance of Children Under 13 – Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Young Children”; in 1986, the wording was simplified to “Parents Strongly Cautioned – Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Children Under 13”. Around the same time, the MPAA won a trademark infringement lawsuit against the producers and distributors of I Spit on Your Grave over a fraudulent application of its R rating to the uncut version of the film,[13] and forced its member studios and several other home video distributors to put MPAA ratings on the packaging of MPAA-rated films via a settlement that would come into effect by fall that year.[14]

The ratings used from 1984 to 1990 were:

In the rating system’s early years, “X”-rated films such as Midnight Cowboy (1969), A Clockwork Orange (1971), the animated Fritz the Cat (1972), and Last Tango in Paris (1972) were understood to be unsuitable for children, but non-pornographic and intended for the general public. However, pornographic films often self-applied the non-trademarked “X” rating, and it soon became synonymous with pornography in American culture.[15] In late 1989 and early 1990, two critically acclaimed art films featuring strong adult content, Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer and The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, were released. Neither film was approved for an MPAA rating, thus limiting their commercial distribution, and prompting criticism of the rating system’s lack of a designation for such films.[16][17]

In September 1990, the MPAA introduced the rating “NC-17” (“No Children Under 17 Admitted”).[18] Henry & June – previously to be assigned an “X” rating – was the first film to receive the “NC-17” rating instead.[18][19] Although films with an “NC-17” rating had more mainstream distribution opportunities than “X”-rated films, many cinemas refused to screen them, most entertainment media did not accept advertising for them, and many large video outlets refused to stock them.[20] In 1996,[21] the minimum age for “NC-17” films was raised to 18, by rewording it to “No One 17 and Under Admitted”.[22]

The current ratings used since 1990 are:[2]

Since September 1990, the MPAA has included brief explanations of why each film received an “R” rating, allowing parents to know what type of content the film contained. For example, some films’ explanations may read “Strong Brutal Violence, Pervasive Language, Some Strong Sexual Content, and Drug Material”. Around the late 1990s, the MPAA began applying rating explanations for “PG”, “PG-13”, and “NC-17” films as well.[23]

Depictions of violence are generally restricted to PG and above. The violence in a PG rated film will not be intense, while violence that is both intense and persistent will generally require at least an R rating. Violence is not prohibited in G rated films, but if present will be minimal.[24]

Snippets of language that go “beyond polite conversation” are permitted in G rated films, but no stronger words are present. Profanity may be present in PG rated films, and use of one of the harsher sexually-derived expletives will initially incur at least a PG-13 rating. Multiple occurrences will usually incur an R rating as will the usage of such an expletive in a sexual context. Nevertheless, the ratings board may still award a PG-13 rating passed by a two-thirds majority if they believe the language is justified by the context or by the manner in which the words are used.[24]

There are several known cases in which PG-13 rated films contain multiple occurrences of the word fuck: Adventures in Babysitting, where the word is used twice in the same scene;[25] The Hip Hop Project, which has seventeen uses;[26] Gunner Palace, a documentary of soldiers in the Second Gulf War, which has 42 uses of the word with two used sexually;[27] Bully, a 2011 documentary about bullying;[28] Philomena, released in November 2013, which has two uses of the word.[29]

Drug use content is restricted to PG-13 and above.[24] An example of an otherwise PG film being assigned a PG-13 rating for a drug reference (momentary, along with brief language) is Whale Rider. The film contained only mild profanity, but was rated PG-13 because of a scene where drug paraphernalia were briefly visible. Critic Roger Ebert criticized the MPAA for the rating and called it “a wild overreaction”.[30]

In May 2007, the MPAA announced that depictions of cigarette smoking would be considered in a film’s rating.[31][32] The 2011 Nickelodeon-animated film Rango caused some controversy over its PG rating among anti-smoking advocates. It was argued that the film showed over 60 depictions of characters smoking in the film, and that because of this, the child-friendly PG rating was inappropriate.[33]

Nudity is restricted to PG and above, although only brief nudity is permitted in a PG rated film. Nudity that is sexually oriented will generally require an R rating.[24] As of 2010, the MPAA has added a descriptor of “male nudity” to films featuring said content.[34]

The MPAA does not have any explicit criteria for sexual content other than excluding sex scenes from G rated films.[24]

In its initial years of use, few films with the NC-17 rating were profitable. In 1995, United Artists released the big-budget film Showgirls (1995). It became the most widely distributed film with an NC-17 rating (showing in 1,388 cinemas simultaneously), but was a financial failure that grossed only 45% of its $45 million budget.[35] Some modest successes can be found among NC-17 theatrical releases, however. Fox Searchlight Pictures released the original NC-17-rated American edition of the European film The Dreamers (2003) in theaters in the United States, and later released both the original NC-17 and the cut R-rated version on DVD. A Fox Searchlight spokesman said the NC-17 rating did not give them much trouble in releasing this film (they had no problem booking it, and only the Mormon-owned Salt Lake City newspaper Deseret News refused to take the film’s ad), and Fox Searchlight was satisfied with this film’s United States box office result.[36] Another notable exception is Bad Education (2004), a NC-17 foreign-language film which grossed $5.2 million in the United States theatrically[37] (a moderate success for a foreign-language film[38]).

As of March 2007, according to Variety, MPAA chairman Dan Glickman had been made aware of the attempts to introduce a new rating, or find ways to reduce the stigma of the NC-17 rating. Film studios have pressured the MPAA to retire the NC-17 rating, because of its likely impact on their film’s box office revenue.[39][40]

During the controversy about the MPAA’s decision to give the film Blue Valentine (2010) an NC-17 rating (The Weinstein Company challenged this decision, and the MPAA ended up awarding the same cut an R rating on appeal), actor Ryan Gosling noted that NC-17 films are not allowed wide advertisement and that, given the refusal of major cinema chains like AMC and Regal to show NC-17 rated movies, many such films will never be accessible to people who live in markets that do not have art house theatres.[41]

Legal scholar Julie Hilden wrote that the MPAA has a “masterpiece exception” that it has made for films that would ordinarily earn an NC-17 rating, if not for the broader artistic masterpiece that requires the violence depicted as a part of its message. She cites Saving Private Ryan, with its bloody depiction of the D-Day landings, as an example. This exception is troubling, Hilden argues, because it ignores context and perspective in evaluating other films and favors conventional films over edgier films that contribute newer and more interesting points to public discourse about violence.[42]

Starting in 2004, GKC Theatres (now Carmike Cinemas) introduced ‘R-Cards,’ which parents could obtain for their teenage children, under the age of 17, to see R-rated films without adult accompaniment. The cards generated much controversy; MPAA president Jack Valenti said in a news article: “I think it distorts and ruptures the intent of this voluntary film ratings system. All R-rated films are not alike.”[43] John Fithian, the president of the National Association of Theatre Owners, also said that the cards can be harmful. He noted in a news article for the Christian Science Monitor that the R rating is “broad enough to include relatively family-friendly fare such as Billy Elliot and Erin Brockovich (which were both rated R for language) along with films that push the extremes of violence, including Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill.”[44]

The film rating system has had a number of high-profile critics. Film critic Roger Ebert argued that the system places too much emphasis on sex, while allowing the portrayal of massive amounts of gruesome violence. The uneven emphasis on sex versus violence is echoed by other critics, including David Ansen, as well as many filmmakers. Moreover, Ebert argued that the rating system is geared toward looking at trivial aspects of the film (such as the number of times a profane word is used) rather than at the general theme of the film (for example, if the film realistically depicts the consequences of sex and violence). He called for an A (adults only) rating, to indicate films high in violence or mature content that should not be marketed to teenagers, but do not have NC-17 levels of sex. He also called for the NC-17 rating to be removed and have the X rating revived. He felt that everyone understood what X-rated means, while fewer people understood what NC-17 meant. He called for ratings A and X to identify whether an adult film is pornographic or not.[45][46][47][48]

MPAA chairman Dan Glickman has disputed these claims, stating that far more films are initially rated NC-17 for violence than for sex, but that these are later edited by studios to receive an R rating.[49]

Despite this, an internal critic of the early workings of the ratings system is film critic and writer Stephen Farber, who was a CARA intern for six months during 1969 and 1970. In The Movie Ratings Game,[50] he documents a prejudice against sex in relation to violence. This Film Is Not Yet Rated also points out that four times as many films received an NC-17 rating for sex than they did for violence according to the MPAA’s own website, further mentioning a bias against homosexual content compared to heterosexual content, particularly with regards to sex scenes.

The 2011 documentary Bully received an R rating for the profanity contained within the film, which prevented most of the intended audience, middle and high schoolers, from seeing the film. The film’s director, Lee Hirsch, has refused to recut the film, stating, “I feel a responsibility as a filmmaker, as the person entrusted to tell (these kids’) stories, to not water them down.” A petition collected more than 200,000 signatures to change the film’s rating[51] and a version with less profanity was finally given a PG-13 rating.

Many critics of the MPAA system, especially independent distributors, have charged that major studios’ releases often receive more lenient treatment than independent films. The independent film Saints and Soldiers, which contains no nudity, almost no sex (although, there is a scene in which a German soldier is about to rape a French woman), very little profanity, and a minimum of violence, was said to have been rated R for a single clip where a main character is shot and killed, and required modification of just that one scene to receive a PG-13 rating.[52][53] Eric Watson, producer of the independently-distributed, NC-17-rated Requiem for a Dream complained that the studios are paying the budget of the MPAA, which gives the studios leverage over the MPAA’s decisions.[54]

The comedy Scary Movie, released by Dimension Films, at the time a division of The Walt Disney Company, contained “strong crude sexual humor, language, drug use and violence,” including images of ejaculation and an erect penis, but was rated R, to the surprise of many reviewers and audiences; by comparison, the comparatively tame porn spoof Orgazmo, an independent release by South Park creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker, contained “explicit sexual content and dialogue” and received an NC-17 (the only on-screen penis seen in the film is a dildo). As Parker and Stone did not have the money and the time to edit the film, it retained its NC-17 rating. In contrast, Parker and Stone’s second feature film, South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, was distributed by a major studio (Paramount Pictures) and, after multiple submissions and notes from the MPAA, received an R rating.[54]

Many critics of the system, both conservative and liberal, would like to see the MPAA ratings unveiled and the standards made public. The MPAA has consistently cited nationwide scientific polls (conducted each year by the Opinion Research Corporation of Princeton, New Jersey), which show that parents find the ratings useful. Critics such as Matt Stone in Kirby Dick’s documentary This Film is not Yet Rated respond this proves only that parents find the ratings more useful than nothing at all.[55] In the film, it is also discussed how the MPAA will not reveal any information about who or why certain decisions are made, and that the association will not even reveal to the filmmaker the specific scenes that need to be cut in order to get alternative rating.

Although there has always been concern about the content of films,[56] the MPAA has, in recent years, been accused of a “ratings creep”, whereby the films that fall into today’s ratings categories now contain more objectionable material than those that appeared in the same categories two decades earlier.[57] A study put forward by the Harvard School of Public Health in 2004 concluded that there had been a significant increase in the level of profanity, sex and violence in films released between 1992 and 2003.[58] Kimberly Thompson, director of the study, stated: “The findings demonstrate that ratings creep has occurred over the last decade and that today’s movies contain significantly more violence, sex, and profanity on average than movies of the same rating a decade ago.”[58] managing editor David Chen wrote on the website: “It’s time for more people to condemn the MPAA and their outrageous antics. We’re heading towards an age when we don’t need a mommy-like organization to dictate what our delicate sensibilities can and can’t be exposed to. I deeply hope that the MPAA’s irrelevance is imminent.”[59]

Chicago Tribune film critic Michael Phillips wrote that the MPAA ratings board “has become foolish and irrelevant, and its members do not have my interests at heart, or yours. They’re too easy on violence yet bizarrely reactionary when it comes to nudity and language.”[60]

Michigan Hotels What Do They Have To Offer?

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 16-08-2014

Submitted by: Fred Lozey

What do you know about Michigan hotels? My cousin recently moved to Michigan to finish her graduate degree and my family and I, after deciding we missed her so much, decided to take a little mini vacation to Munising, Michigan and visit one of our very favorite people. But since we were going to be taking a little Michigan vacation to a place we were unfamiliar with, we decided to research Michigan hotels before we even left our home here in the west.

Whilst researching Michigan hotels, my husband and I discovered that Michigan is one of the prime vacation spots in the country! And even better, it also seemed to be a fairly unknown place to vacation. I can see why. When you say you are going to plan a family vacation, chances are Michigan is not the first vacation spot that comes to mind. Or even the second or third. Munising Michigan seemed to be a great place to vacation for that reason alone. After all – I truly hate crowds! What’s even better, there seemed to be tons of fun vacation destinations in the state of Michigan, all of which offered easy access to some very nice Michigan hotels.

YouTube Preview Image

My husband was super stoked to realize that many of the top Michigan hotels offer lodging that is particularly close to many Michigan outdoor activities. Activities such as prime ATV trails. These Michigan hotels also offered easy access to Lake Superior, which is a great place for all the outdoor lovers, such as my husband, to spend a lot of time fishing. The Hiawatha National Forest also seemed like a great place to go and visit, as well as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. All in all, for anybody who enjoys spending some time in the great outdoors, a Michigan vacation seemed like a great way to spend a vacation, and there are plenty of Michigan hotels for every price range and personality!

So what do you know about Michigan hotels? I didn’t know much about the city of Munising, or any other city of Michigan for that matter, before we planned our Michigan vacation. I certainly didn’t know anything about Michigan hotels before our Michigan vacation. Now, however, I know just enough about the lodging that the great state of Michigan has to offer to know that this was a great vacation destination for our entire family! There are vacation rentals that are open year round offering easy access to the ATV trails that are also open year round. Michigan vacation rentals are a great option for anybody searching for Michigan hotels that offer a taste of home while still feeling like a fun, outdoorsy vacation.

Lake Superior and the Hiawatha National Forest are great places to visit, and if you pick just the right Michigan hotels, or Michigan lodging vacation rentals, your Michigan vacation will be everything you ever dreamed it could be! My cousin is very excited for us to come up to Michigan and visit, and I must say that my family and I are very excited to begin our Michigan vacation by staying in what appears to be one of the best Michigan hotels that the great state of Michigan has to offer. Lake Superior, here we come!

About the Author: Sherly believe that three people are connected at the heart, and it doesn’t matter what you do in Kiron, or who you are or where you live; there are no boundaries or barriers if two people are destined to be together. The family of Asal knows some about the situation or you can ask the other TamminenSo what do you know about Michigan hotels? I didn’t know much about the city of Munising, or any other city of Michigan for that matter, before we planned our Michigan vacation….. Learn more at



Permanent Link:

About Raised Garden Beds

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 06-07-2014

Submitted by: Maricruz Marcoux

Raised garden beds can produce 2 times as much produce than conventional gardening. Why? Here are the main factors of why raised garden beds are so wonderful. To start, most plants flourish in an arid, loose soil. When you plant in a raised bed there are many problems solved… You eliminate the risk of compacting the garden bed soil with your feet, and if you have dense clay soil in your area you can still grow a successful garden with raised garden beds by filling it with a quality plant friendly soil. Also, without needing to provide a path between rows for stepping, you can maximize the space in raised garden beds by square foot gardening. Raised garden beds make successful planting possible anywhere, even in the most clay packed or sand dense places! Whether you are planting a vegetable or flower garden there are many benefits to the raised bed gardening method.

Having raised garden beds gets your garden higher and closer to your level making tending your garden easier. You may choose to sit and weed instead of having to kneel to weed you garden. This is especially helpful for those with health problems and physical limits or disabilities. Raised garden beds bring the garden to a much more comfortable level.

YouTube Preview Image

Because raised garden beds are relatively small and above ground, the sun warms the soil in the box sooner than the level ground. This factor extends the growing season because you can sow your seeds earlier and keep them producing longer into the fall. Also, the drainage is better in a raised garden bed allowing roots to breathe if it gets pummeled by rain or over watered, preventing root rot and other over watering problems.

So how do you go about building raised garden beds? First, you need to determine the size of the box you need to fit your gardening needs and yard space. If you search the words “Raised Garden Bed Instructions” online, there are many building methods to choose from. Cedar wood is the best choice of wood for your raised garden beds construction. Cedar keeps bugs and pests from burrowing into the wood and destroying it.

Probably the most important feature of the raised garden beds design is the corner jointing. There will be a lot of wight and pressure in the box with the soil and water pushing outward on the connected corners. So, the raised garden beds need to be reinforced somehow either by brackets, vertical reinforcement such as a 4×4 piece of lumber anchor inside the corner, or both! You can never be too reinforced especially if you are planning on stacking the raised garden beds for a taller box. Building a raised garden bed is pretty easy. Even people without much carpentry skills can do it! You can have the helpful employee’s at your local hardware store cut the size of the wood for you and you can screw it together at home. You can also buy pre-made kits for raised garden beds that you can purchase at a nearby gardening center.

About the Author: Nick Oudker and Mr. Veil Are mentors who are able to give the type of help only a Dr. Trembinski has been able to provide in the past. To so my dear Mother I also say thanks.So how do you go about building raised garden beds? First, you need to determine the size of the box you need to fit your gardening needs and yard space. If you…. Learn more at



Permanent Link:

Fires out at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by 4Wct7D on 05-07-2014

Tuesday, December 13, 2005 

After two days, the 2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire has finally been extinguished.

The fires began after a series of explosions early on the morning of 11 December 2005. The terminal, known locally as the Buncefield Depot, is an oil storage facility located near Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. These were some of the largest explosions ever to occur in the country and the incident has been described as the biggest of its kind in peacetime Europe.

The Hertfordshire Fire Service chief Roy Wilsher said: “There are still some small bund (concrete container) fires, but the tanks are out.”

Fire crews would remain at the scene over the next few days cooling the area to ensure fires did not break out again, he said.

A few residents are being allowed to return to their homes within an exclusion zone set up around the site.